The Common Concepts of Jings in Tai Chi Chuan

It appears that listening jing (tein jing), understanding jing (dong jing), yielding jing (hui jing) and fa jing are the nuclear of Tai Chi Chuan as a martial art. All the practitioners agreed that they are the key to victory and criterion for mastery the art. Therefore, over the years, several push hand exercises were developed by experienced practitioners to train novel student to better understand these jings and concepts. If one is not able to master the listening jing, there is no way one will master the understanding jing. Without the knowledge of understanding jing, one cannot properly apply the techniques of yielding and fa jing. If the yielding technique is not proper, one is not able to apply fa jing technique. If there is no fa jing technique, there is no offense. Therefore, listening jing is the first step in push hand training. It is not listen by the ears alone, one is incorporated the whole body. Using the nerve system, the relaxation skill developed from the solo form training and the sensitivity from the hands' contact.

The goal in the stationary single and double joint hand exercises is to train the listening jing. First one learns how to listen the opponent's jing than progress to understand the opponent's jing. Understanding the opponent's jing by distinguishing the types of jing, quality, speed and timing from the opponent so that one will formulate a proper respond. In order to train the listening jing well, one must observes the basic principles of stick, connection, adhesion, following, not to let go and not to go too extreme in all the push hand exercises. The definitions of these four basic principles are: Stick means one should apply enough power to follow the opponent's movement. If there is too much power, one is warding off the opponent before attempting to strike. If not enough power, the opponent comes in too close. Connection means follow the opponent's movements continuously without hesitation. Adhesion means follow the opponent's movement without any break. It is also mean not to give up. Following means to be unselfish and let the opponent take the lead. Not to let go means not to separate from the opponent's movement. One should remain in contact. Not to go too extreme means not to against the opponent's movement or confrontational. If one is able to correctly apply these concepts, the execution of fa jing technique and yielding technique will be so profound that it is difficult for one to see how it is done. The execution to fa jing technique has to be sudden and surprise without any expectation and hesitation. All these required a good skill in listening and understanding jings.

Understanding jing is the ability to diagnose the opponent's behavior and power. The Tai Chi Chuan Classics that it is the key to control the opponent's or being control by the opponent. Although a practitioner has decade of experience, if he does not have understanding jing skill, he will be in a disadvantage position during confrontation.

Yielding is referring to neutralize the opponent's power or threat. In order to correctly execute the technique, all the techniques must following the principle of stick, connection, adhesion, following, not to let go and not to go too extreme. Generally, yielding follow the direction of the opponent's power and result off target. A good yielding technique execution is initiated on the waist not the hands.

The technique of fa jing is another one of the important technique in Tai Chi Chuan system. It is often practice in push hand training as well as in the solo exercise. In Tai Chi Chuan's fa jing technique, it demands the practitioner to mobilize the body's power to discharge or concentrate on one area or direction. Tai Chi Chuan fa jing technique has an explosive characteristic. It is not a collision characteristic. The devastation is greater.

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